For dough: In a small bowl, combine warm milk and yeast and set aside. Use a mortar and pestle (or a rolling pin and zip-top bag) to coarsely grind black cardamom pods, discarding large pieces of shell that won't grind up. In a large bowl, whisk together flour, brown sugar, salt, and ground black cardamom. Add whole eggs, egg yolks, butter, and yeast mixture to dry ingredients and stir with a wooden spoon until a soft, wet, slightly lumpy dough is formed. Cover bowl with plastic wrap and refrigerate for 8 to 10 hours, or overnight.
For filling: In a small bowl, mix brown sugar, butter, tahini, flour, cinnamon, and salt until smooth and set aside. After dough has been refrigerated, preheat oven to 375 degrees and line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Transfer dough to a clean, lightly floured surface and roll into a 14x14 square. Spread filling evenly over entire surface of dough. Fold dough in half downwards, lining up the top and bottom corners. Use a pizza cutter to cut 1-inch strips of folded dough from bottom to top. Holding each end of one folded strip, gently stretch apart while twisting each end in opposite directions to create a spiral. Wrap one end around itself several times to form a circular bun. Tuck the loose end under the bun to secure. Repeat with remaining strips and place on prepared baking sheet. When all buns have been formed, gently cover with plastic wrap or clean cloth and allow to rise for 30 to 60 min., or until visibly puffed with a marshmallow-like feel when gently poked. Bake for 12 to 14 min., or until very lightly browned on top. Allow to cool on baking sheet for 2 to 3 min. before transferring to a baking rack to cool.
For glaze: In a small bowl, whisk together powdered sugar, butter, milk, rose water, and salt for 1 min., or until smooth. Spoon or pipe glaze over warm or cooled buns and serve.